Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important food-borne pathogen that in humans causes a self-limited gastroenteritis, characterized by fever, acute intestinal inflammation, diarrhea, and the presence of neutrophils in stool samples. In addition, S. Typhimurium is a model organism for studying bacterial genetics and microbial pathogenesis. As the frontier in bacterial pathogenesis research is moving towards understanding the complexity of host-pathogen interaction at the tissue level, studies on the pathogenesis of S. Typhimurium gastroenteritis using animal models have helped establish important new concepts that exert a strong influence on the research field. Recent studies on S. Typhimurium pathogenesis reveal how tissue-specific host factors and the presence of other bacterial species shape the outcome of host-pathogen interaction in the intestinal lumen. This review discusses these new paradigms for the interplay between the pathogen, the host and its resident microbial community.
Salmonella, the host and its microbiota. Curr Opin Microbiol. Oct 24 2011
The intestine is host to a diverse bacterial community whose structure, at the phylum level, is maintained through unknown mechanisms. Acute inflammation triggered by enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), is accompanied by changes in the bacterial community structure marked by an outgrowth of the pathogen. Recent studies show that S. Typhimurium can harness benefit from the host response to edge out the beneficial bacterial species that dominate in the healthy gut. The elucidation of how S. Typhimurium alters the bacterial community structure during gastroenteritis is beginning to provide insights into mechanisms that dictate the balance between the host and its microbiota.
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