Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infects 40–80% of adults worldwide. HSV-1 initiates infection at mucosal surfaces and spreads along sensory neurons to establish a life-long latent infection that can lead to neurological diseases. Humans usually develop IgG antibodies that specifically recognize pathogens via fragment antigen binding (Fab) variable regions. HSV-1 can avoid the protective effects of antibodies by producing gE-gI, a receptor that binds to the constant portion of IgGs (Fc), tethering the antibody in a position where it cannot trigger downstream immune functions. A gE-gI–bound IgG can participate in antibody bipolar bridging (ABB) such that the Fabs bind a viral antigen and the Fc binds gE-gI. The fate of ABB complexes had been unknown. This paper uses used live cell fluorescent imaging to follow ABB complexes during their formation and transport within a cell. ABB assemblies were internalized into acidic intracellular compartments, where gE-gI dissociated from IgG–viral antigen complexes and the IgG and antigen were targeted for degradation within lysosomes. These results suggest that gE-gI mediates clearance of infected cell surfaces of both anti-viral IgGs and viral antigens, a general mechanism to facilitate latent infection by evading IgG-mediated responses.
- Emerging disease
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