Oncolytic virotherapy – using viruses to treat cancer – is a hot topic. Earlier this week the media was reporting a new clinical trial where researchers seeming cured multiple myeloma in one patient by giving her a huge dose of measles vaccine (NHS Choices: Measles virus used to treat bone marrow cancer). But cancer is among the top fatal diseases in domestic and feral dogs and cats too. Incidence of canine or feline cancer ranges from 1% to 2% and cancer currently accounts for about half of the deaths of domestic animals older than 10 years. The most common forms of cancer in dogs and cats are skin, lymphoma, mammary, bone, connective tissue, and oral cancers. The traditional and established methods for pet cancer treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy. However, the available treatment options for pets with advanced-stage disease are limited and the prognosis for such animals is very poor.
The first clinical studies with vaccinia and adenovirus for canine cancer therapy are underway and data on clinical effectiveness is awaited. As for oncolytic virotherapy of human cancers, the most important challenges for the successful clinical use of OVs in veterinary practice are reduction of viral toxicity, optimization of virus delivery to tumor, and enhancement of viral spread throughout the tumor mass. So will it catch on?
Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer. Viruses 2014, 6(5), 2122-2137; doi:10.3390/v6052122
Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.