The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses – EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV – have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.
TagsAfrica Agriculture Antibiotics Antivirals Bacteria Bacteriophages Biofilms Biology Biotechnology cancer disease Drugs Education Emerging disease Environment evolution Food Fungi Genetics Google+ Health History HIV/AIDS Immunology infection Influenza Malaria Medicine Microbiology Mycology Parasitology plants Podcast Prions retrovirus RNA Science Tuberculosis University of Leicester Vaccines viaGoogle+ Video Virology virus
Top Posts & Pages
This is a personal weblog. The opinions expressed here represent my own views and not those of my employer or any other organization. Comments on posts represent the opinions of visitors.
MicrobiologyBytes by AJ Cann is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.